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Dicţionar wiki de autoantonime [updated 07-03]

cuvintele, telalîcuri @ 26 February 2007

Cuvinte care se contrazic pe ele însele.
Adică îşi sînt propriile lor antonime.
Cum ar veni, omonime cu sensuri opuse.
Sau antonime cu aceeaşi formă lexicală (sau fonetică).
Sînt nişte rarităţi, pe care cărţile de lingvistică le îngrămădesc la capitolul glume, dar care merită mai multă consideraţie din partea noastră.

Sînt autoantonimele, cărora li se mai spune contronime, antilogii, sau enantiodromuri. Sau cuvintele lui Ianus (zeul cu faţă dublă).
Există cîteva în română:
- a deservi = a servi pe cineva… sau, dimpotrivă, a-i dăuna, a-i aduce – vorba aceea – deservicii;
- gata = în sensul de pregătit, iniţializat pentru ceva care va să fie… sau, dimpotrivă, ceva terminat, epuizat, expirat;
- a împrumuta = a da cu împrumut… sau, dimpotrivă, a lua cu împrumut;
- a închiria = a da ceva cu chirie… sau, dimpotrivă, a contracta în calitate de chiriaş;
- a nominaliza (cu precădere în limbajul lemnos al politicienilor şi ziariştilor) = a propune pe cineva pentru o funcţie/post, în calitate de candidat/aspirant… sau, dimpotrivă, a numi definitiv pe cineva în funcţie/pe post.
Ştiu, “nominalizarea” asta e un semicultism de dată recentă. Prima accepţiune e o traducere lesnicioasă a englezescului “nominee”, pomenit zilele astea din preajma Oscarului. Iar al doilea e un eufemism al “numirii”, care e socotită de la o vreme ceva anti-democratic şi cvasi-dictatorial. Numai comuniştii “numesc”; democraţii “nominalizează”…
Per total însă antiomonimele sînt cazuri paradoxale, sînt puncte nevralgice în sistemul limbii/vorbirii care ne pot pune pe gînduri, ne pot da fiori poetici… Şi chiar ne pot face să reflectăm uneori la caracterul contradictoriu al universului. La faptul că, în cele vorbite ca şi în cele trăite, extremele se ating.
- Un caz interesant – frig, cuvînt care desemnează deopotrivă răceala şi căldura extremă (ca formă verbală conjugată). Şi, într-adevăr, frigul extrem se resimte la fel ca arsura.
În vara lui 2003, am făcut naming şi reclamă pentru un concert cu Phoenix (şi cu Sarmalele Reci în deschidere) organizat de Frigotehnica şi “breasla frigului” din România. Cum i-am zis?
(dacă Alex. Şchiopu, art-ul meu de atunci mai are layout-ul de afiş, o să i-l cer).
Care mai ştii autoantonime în română? Eşti rugat să contribui la acest ciot wiki ad hoc.
ADDENDA 28-02-07:
- condescendenţă = Purtare plină de consideraţie şi bunăvoinţă faţă de cineva; respect, amabilitate, deferenţă. ♦ (Peior.) Aer de superioritate, infatuare, semeţie. (cf. dexonline, propus de Gabi);
- de-o şchioapă = orice despre care se spune că e de-o şchioapă este mic, cu excepţia literelor care sînt exagerat de mari (şchioapa ca veche unitate de măsură e oarecum echivalenta cu ţolul).
ADDENDUM 03-07-07:
- ultimele două sensuri ale lui POTRIVÍ 7. Refl. (Pop. şi fam.) A da cuiva ascultare, a-i face pe voie; a consimţi. 8. Refl. (Înv. şi pop.) A se împotrivi (apud dexonline).
ADDENDUM 17-07-08:
- redau din DEX sensurile extreme ale lui CUCERI (cele intermediare fac propriu-zis trecerea):


I. Tranz. 1. A cuprinde, a ocupa, a supune un teritoriu cu puterea armelor. ♦ A doborî ceva prin luptă susţinută; A câştiga. [...] II. Tranz. şi refl. (Înv.) A (se) supune, a (se) închina; a (se) ruga umilindu-se. – Lat. *conquerire(= conquirere).

143 Responses to Dicţionar wiki de autoantonime [updated 07-03]

  1. gabi Says:

    desi nu e chiar un exemplu suculent..cred ca ar putea intra in categoria asta si “condescendenta” = Purtare plină de consideraţie şi bunăvoinţă faţă de cineva; respect, amabilitate, deferenţă. ♦ (Peior.) Aer de superioritate, infatuare, semeţie.
    (via http://dexonline.ro/search.php?cuv=condescendenta)

  2. textier Says:

    bine gabi! mie mi se pare destul de suculent. nu m-as fi gndit…
    o sa-l trec pe lista.

  3. fane Says:

    nu stiu daca nu e cumva cam chinuit “colocvial”: 1. referitor la colocviu (discutie stiintifica, formala sau chiar tip de examinare) si 2. stil de vorbire familiar…

  4. textier Says:

    nice try fane! e cam abuziva definitia 1: colocviile ar trebui sa fie relaxate si in mediul academic… dar merita acceptata ca tendinta in limba (si in societate).
    apropo: si “academic” initial era ceva liber, neingradit, relaxat, peripatetic… vine de la numele unei gradini pe unde mai “atirnau” socraticii.
    poate un post nou cu astfel de devieri…

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